Alopecia (Hair Loss) Alopecia, also called hair loss, includes a set of disorders which involve lacking hair where it would normally grow, especially on the head. The most common form of alopecia is a progressive hair thinning condition called androgenic alopecia or "male pattern baldness" that occurs in adult human males and even some primate species. The severity and nature of alopecia can vary greatly; it ranges from male and female pattern alopecia; alopecia areata, which involves the loss of some of the hair from the head; alopecia totalis, which involves the loss of all head hair; and, the most extreme form, alopecia universalis, which involves the loss of all hair from the head and body.

Male pattern baldness is estimated to occur in about 66% of adult males to some varying degree, at some point of their lives. It is characterized by hair receding from the sides of the forehead, commonly known as a "receding hairline" or "receding brow". An additional patch of lost hair may be present on the very top of the head as well. The trigger for this type of hair loss is DHT, a powerful sex hormone. In those vulnerable to male pattern baldness, DHT initiates a process of follicular miniaturization, in which the hair shaft is slowly narrowed until the hair on the scalp resembles peach fuzz or becomes non-existent. Female pattern baldness, in which the midline parting of the hair appears to broaden, is a less common occurrence. It is believed to result from a decrease in estrogen, a hormone that normally counteracts the balding effect of testosterone. Onset of hair loss can begin as early as the end of puberty, and is mostly a genetic condition.

There are several other kinds of baldness conditions. Traction alopecia is found in people who wear their hair in ponytails or cornrows with the hair being held back with excessive force. Traumas such as chemotherapy, childbirth, major surgeries, poisoning, and sever stress may cause a hair loss condition known as telogen effluvium.

When it comes to treating alopecia, it is far easier to prevent the aging and falling out of follicles than to regrow hair from dormant follicles. Finasteride and minoxidil have shown some success in partially reversing hair loss, but are generally ineffective at treating extreme cases. Topical application of ketoconazole, which is an anti-fungal and potent 5-alpha reductase (a hormone responsible for hair loss) inhibitor, is often used as a supplement to other approaches. Saw Palmetto is an herbal DHT inhibitor that is reported to have fewer side effects than finasteride and dutasteride. Unlike other products, Saw Palmetto does not interfere with the production of necessary hormones. It has also been seen to inhibit the production of both forms of 5-alpha reductase unlike finasteride which only stops one form. One of the more drastic routes is the use of flutamide, in a topical solution. Flutamide blocks the action of androgens, like testosterone, and is potent enough to have a feminizing effect in men, including breast development.


Treatment of common hair diseases

  • Finasteride 1.0 mg/day
  • Minoxidil 5% solution
  • Hair transplantation
  • Minoxidil 5% solution
  • Antiandrogens:
    • spironolactone
    • cyproterone acetate
    • flutamide
  • Hair transplantationHair transplantation
  • Identify and correct triggering factor (e.g. thyroid imbalance, nutritional deficiency, drugs, etc)
  • Minoxidil 5% solution for chronic telogen effluvium
  • Intralesional corticosteroids
  • Minoxidil 5% solution ± corticosteroid cream
  • Topical immunotherapy with diphencyprone
  • PUVA
  • Minoxidil 5% solution ± corticosteroid cream
  • Minoxidil 5% solution ± corticosteroid cream

Dandruff is a problem that is uncomfortable, annoying, and embarrassing. There are many people who have this disorder, which is characterized by itching and flaking of the scalp. Fortunately, dandruff isn't contagious and dandruff control and treatment is fairly easily. dandruff control treatment, hair loss treatment, male pattern baldness treatment, male, female pattern hair loss.



Dandruff is thought to be caused by a fungus called malassezia, a fat-eating fungus, which lives on the scalp of most healthy adults. While it does not cause problems for most people, malassezia can sometimes grow out of control and begin feeding on the oil on your scalp. The result is increased cell turnover and a large number of dead skin cells. These cells, combined with dirt and oil from your hair and scalp, form flaky white scales.


The common symptoms of dandruff include itching and white, oily flakes. That said, there are several conditions, including psoriasis, dry skin, seborrheic dermatitis, or contact dermatitis, which present similar symptoms. Before beginning treatment for dandruff, it is important to consult your dermatologist to make sure you're treating the right condition.



While controllable, dandruff can be persistent and requires consistent treatment. There are several types of over-the-counter shampoos available for treating dandruff. If you try one and it doesn't have the desired effect, move on to the next. Following are four common types of dandruff shampoos:

  • Zinc pyrithione shampoos, such as Head & Shoulders, contain an antibacterial and antifungal agent (zinc pyrithione) which has been shown to fight the fungus that causes dandruff.
  • Selenium sulfide shampoos, such as Selsun Blue, can prevent cell turnover and may help control the malassezia fungus. These types of shampoos may discolor blond or gray hair and can cause significant discoloration in chemically treated hair, so follow the directions carefully and rinse well.
  • Ketoconazole shampoo, like Nizoral, contains a broad antifungal agent.
  • Tar-based shampoos, such as Neutrogena T/Gel, contain coal tar, which slows cell turnover and reduces the formation of dandruff's scaly flakes.

Use of these shampoos above is recommended daily until dandruff is controlled. Once the dandruff is under control, use dandruff shampoo two or three times a week, alternating with a good moisturizing shampoo. If the dandruff shampoo loses its effectiveness, switch to another type of shampoo or try alternating between types. Be sure to follow directions carefully. Should over the counter treatments fail, see your dermatologist. Stronger treatments are available by prescription.

In addition to using the proper shampoo, other steps can be taken to control dandruff, including: eating right, exfoliating the scalp with a massage , managing stress, and reducing the amount of styling products used. Consistently following a dandruff control routine should keep your hair and scalp looking healthy and flake free.dandruff control treatment, hair loss treatment, male pattern baldness treatment, male, female pattern hair loss